Protection of Children in War & Disaster Case Study: Livelihood -- Group 8
Dana Barakat, Xheni Shehu and Ayman Yassa 1

The people of Papua Koala are going through drastic livelihood changes since the 20 year Civil War has ended. Ten thousand returnees have settled back into their homeland but are finding the wage job market to be scarce, especially for the majority who don’t have the necessary skills to work on the farmland which is plentiful. The returnees seem to be worse off than the rest of the population who are also dealing with the deteriorated infrastructure since the war. Adolescents and youth make up 50 % of the PK populations and most are economically active in order to help support their families. Unfortunately, the gang violence and high rate of pregnancy, among other issues, give adults a negative image of youth.
Fortunately a large donor has given six INGO’s grants for livelihood programs.
The following issues need to be addressed when creating the programs:
1. Wage Jobs are scarce
2. Returnees don’t have the necessary farming skills
3. School Attendance has decreased since youth are working
4. Gender based violence for women and Discrimination for Returnees
5. Teen pregnancy
6. Gang violence
First, we propose that the 6 NGOS work together, perhaps as a cluster group, and each NGO takes responsibility for one critical issue. This would encourage open dialogue and group participation amongst the NGOs and would, hopefully, encourage an effective distribution of donor money.
With your livelihood mandate from the community and the donor, what steps will you take to ensure better outcomes for the children in this community?

a. Multi-sectoral approach: work with health, GBV, psychosocial, nutrition NGOs to gain a better understanding of the day to day life of these returnees. This will allow us to gain indicators within these sectors to better assess our program as time progresses. Additionally, within these sectors there is much that can be done to improve gang violence, absence of education and teen pregnancy which is affecting the adolescent population.
b. Sound market analysis: the initial assessment appears to show that farming is an underutilized area for income generation but we will ensure this through a thorough market assessment. We will attempt to model what the impacts of our

Protection of Children in War & Disaster Case Study: Livelihood -- Group 8
Dana Barakat, Xheni Shehu and Ayman Yassa 2

program will have on those other than our target population in the market. We will consider the risks and benefits of targeting this population.

2. What specific approaches will you take to address the needs of various groups?

Based on the initial assessment of Papau Koala we know that the country is rich in timber and mineral resources as well as plentiful farmland. We know that most people (both returnees and those that did not leave) do not have the requisite skills. We know that returnees are worse off than the rest of the community and are subject to discrimination.
a. We will ensure that we speak to the community through focused interviews and focus groups to properly identify the various groups. We would involve the elderly, parents, adolescents and teachers.
b. From initial assessment it appears groups include non-returnees and returnees. Out of these two groups, it appears that returnees are most marginalized and will be the prime focus of our projects. Within the group of returnees we will have children, adolescent girls (who have the least access to education and are at risk of teen pregnancy), adolescent boys (who are at risk of gang membership and violence), and adults.
i. Teenage girls: we will conduct focus groups to try to understand if there are any societal, cultural factors that are limiting their access to education. We will ensure that if they need separate classes that they are available. We will ensure that they have access to separate washroom facilities and sanitary towels as needed. We will incorporate contraception education at the adolescent level if deemed culturally appropriate.
ii. Teenage boys: we will ensure that we gain an understanding of the role of gangs and the activities of gangs. We will attempt to provide alternative social activities. We will provide catch up education classes for those that have not had formal education.
iii. Teenage boys and girls: we will require basic training in literacy for all individuals. We will also require education in skills including farming techniques. We will allow specialization into vocational tract vs.

Protection of Children in War & Disaster Case Study: Livelihood -- Group 8
Dana Barakat, Xheni Shehu and Ayman Yassa 3

academics. Initially we will introduce a farming skills program but we will introduce other skills including mining and the timber industry. We are mindful not to flood the market with only one skill set.
iv. Adults: we will conduct a land distribution program and provide adult education as to farming techniques that is separate from the education for the adolescents. We will contract with the returnees to divide the land but that it would be conditional on the attendance of their children for a fixed amount of time at school.
- we will need to conduct this program with an understanding that the non- returnees may be ‘better-off’ than the returnees however they are still struggling. As time progresses it is important to provide programs for the non-returnee group to avoid animosity and worsening discrimination and resentment towards the returnee population.

3. What actors will you work with to ensure success?

a. As indicated above, we will work with government and community leaders, parents, adolescents in the returnee community.
b. We will also involve the non-returnee community leadership in planning this program to ensure success and discuss why the program initially will not be offered to all citizens of Papua Koala.
c. As indicated above we will ensure that we work with other NGO’s, both national and international, to combine efforts and avoid duplication and competition.

4. How will you prove your projects are working?

a. We will track the performance of graduates who have attended the programs, schools and vocational training programs. This will allow us to get feedback from these graduates as well improve the program, as needed.
b. We will measure indicators like the rate of teen pregnancy, household income, and health indicators to assess the true impact of the program over time. We will obtain baseline indicators prior to starting the program.