Case Study 3: Livelihoods and Child Protection
Group 3: Kimberly, Asuna and Tanya

What specific approaches will you take?

1. Conditional Asset Transfer to increase school enrollment and improve health awareness for girls
1/3 of adolescents and youth are out of school, with attendance particularly low for girls in returnee families and high rates of teen pregnancy. Given these facts and the inability of NGOs to succeed in attracting adolescent girls to their programs in the past, we would like implement a conditional cash transfer for returnee families and for other identified low-income families. The monthly disbursement will require that the following minimum standards be met:
· Attend monthly health and sex-education class (girls age 13-24)
· Attend basic school institutions (girls and boys age 5-17)

Reasoning: We have chosen to focus largely on returnee families with girls, as this has been identified as the most vulnerable group. In an effort to not exacerbate the discrimination that already exists against returnee families, we will offer conditional asset transfers to low-income families in the community at large.

2. Improving the Reproductive Health (RH) of Young People (YP) and abating Gender-Based Violence (GBV)
We have contacted the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Clinic (RHRC), who have agreed to begin a reproductive health program with both boys and girls in returnee communities. In an effort to prevent GBV and unplanned pregnancy, we will begin the following programs:
· Youth-friendly recreational space for YP to gather; we will use these spaces to obtain and discuss RH information and services, as well as conduct surveys to monitor on-going success.
· Training to raise awareness that allow YP to make informed decisions, talk about sex and voice their concerns. It is understood that these are the first steps in preventing GBV, the spread of STIs, unplanned pregnancy and other problems.
· GBV program sessions at the family and/ or community level. These will be targeted at reducing the GBV reported by women and girls, but we will conduct these at the family level in the hopes that more fathers will participate if they are not singled out. We hope to engage boys, men and the community at large in discussing issues surrounding GBV in the hopes that they will become strong advocates for gender equality.

3. Income-Generating Activates: Farming land as a group for food, income and greater peace in the community
Given that little formal employment is available for men and that returnee families report that they eat only 1-2 meals a day, and given the amount of plentiful land, we will begin the following program with men over the ages of 18.
· Train groups of men from the returnee and larger population to farm pieces of land as a group.
· Assistance programs may be used to encourage this cooperation and participation of returnee and non-returnee men
· Develop a clearly defined system for allocating a portion of the crops to families for subsistence at the household level
· Based on household need, families can sell a portion of crops to a local village, for which we have already identified a demand.

Reasoning: It is likely that the discrimination and violence from the larger community towards the returnees is a result of the perception that returnees are taking jobs in an already weak economy. We hope this program will foster greater cooperation between men and boys who participate in the group farming activities. We will conduct on-going interviews with the participants to ensure the project is a success and we will conduct random interviews with the larger community to see if these programs affect the discrimination.

Note: Because the economy is weak in terms of the timber and mineral resources, we will hold off on income generating activities until a market demand has been identified.

What actors will you work with to ensure success?

Various types of partnerships are needed in order to implement ES-VC programming. These should not only include international NGO partnerships, but should strive to engage existing local institutions. In many cases, services can be delivered through established local community-based organizations (CBOs). Even in a community like PK with mounting economic problems, there are usually informal groups or associations based on religion, or small economic activities (breadmaking etc.) that can be strengthened to become essential component to a livelihoods strategy.

I would also strive to make partnerships with current market participants. These groups are valuable sources of information regarding potential markets. They would also be able to give information concerning financial returns and pricing/cost, the size of the market, critical success factors, competitiveness, regulations and institutions, and the processing of goods. This information would allow us to base out programming on sound market and analysis.

How will you prove that your projects are working?

In order to know if any program is providing the expected outcomes indicators should be formulated which are indicative of positive or negative change. School enrollment/attendance/and retention, access to healthcare, nutritional status, consumption patterns, savings rates, and the provision of childcare are all indicators that could tell us whether or not our intervention is yielding the expected results. Program evaluation components would be built into program design for periodic, methodical evaluation of project objectives and impact not just outcomes.