Group 2 – Assignment 3

You are on the livelihoods staff of an INGO that has just opened a Papua Koala field office in response to the influx of returnees.

With your livelihoods mandate from the community and the donor, what steps will you take to ensure better outcomes for the children in this community?
· Undertake a needs assessment if no other has been done already to understand the wellbeing condition of people in the village – both those who have been resident and those who are returning to the village.
o The needs assessment is important to get a picture of the context that the INGO has to work in, the services that are available to different types of the population, vulnerable groups, risk factors for children, conditions that children are living in, their care giving structures, how children support household economies and livelihood patterns and how they may be protected or at risk as a result of these practices. In addition the assessment should also see who else is working in the village and the availability of programmes, beneficiary selection and any forms of good practice and lessons learnt that these programmes have to share.
o Identify through specific assessment what are the common characteristics and difficulties faced by both the returnees and the resident community.
o Assessing how the children and teenagers’ work are profitable to the family in terms of livelihood but also participate in the establishment of certain social and family patterns or structures. This will lead to a more socially and culturally sensitive approach when dealing with the issue of school attendance and suppression of children’s work.
o Assessing the structure, dynamics and power relationships at the household level in both the returnee and resident families will be useful to understand gender based violence and low school attendance, decision making etc...
o Assessing the factors at the community level (social patterns included) for GBV and low school attendance for girls and boys
· Understanding any local conflicts that may have arisen as a result of targeted programmes between population groups and what was done to address these. The INGO would not want to repeat or exacerbate any conflicts. If there are any they would want to develop means to manage such tensions. This could also help in understanding the stigma faced by returnees

What specific approaches will you take to address the needs of the various groups?

· Understanding the availability of skills and the need for skills if certain types of livelihoods are to be adopted (farming, exploitation of timber and mineral resources). This will help guide a plan that identifies the types of livelihoods that people could engage in.
· Develop skills training programme for the youth based on the needs previously assessed, associated with basic education and civic education (understood as sensitization to community life, sexual behavior sensitization etc...)
· Associate the adult community to the above mentioned programme in order to fill in the growing gap described between the generations.
· Integrate this specific programme within the already existing education system so that returnees won’t durably be excluded from an existing structure
· Create a link between the work of the child and the education program, adapt the school hours so that a child can continue to provide livelihood if it has been assessed necessary for his family and attend school.
· Create motivation towards the learning process in insisting on the short and medium term benefits of it.
· Provide meals at school could also be a useful incentive to attend given that many family returnees only have 1-2 meals a day.
· Recognize that the programme should not only focus on women and girls but be designed to ensure that all groups, including men and young men are included.
· Involving women in programmes should also include ways that could empower women to protect themselves – by providing more information and protective services that could help prevent GBV towards women.

What actors will you work with to ensure success?

· Decision makers in the village
· Villagers – including resident and returnees, and the different vulnerable groups that have been identified though the assessment
· Other programme staff working in the village
· Government officials
· Children – adolescent and younger children

How will you prove that your projects are working?

· Develop a monitoring and evaluation system that follows the design of the project and implementation. This can be developed into reporting formats that are easy to fill out, analysed on a regular basis and the analysis is worked into the programme implementation. This should ideally include quantitative and qualitative information and indicators. This system should plan for an evaluation at the end of the project to assess impact and consolidate learning.
· In particular assess the impact of the global programme and its implementation on the youth. This assessment should include the following indicators: School attendance, Access to health care, nutritional status, consumption patterns, savings rates, provision of child care.
· Involving beneficiaries in the M&E process will also help prove how the project is working. The way this is done needs to be in line with developing a system that is flexible and easy to use so that it does not add to the beneficiary involvement in the project. Examples include identified vulnerable subgroups among the youth (girls etc...)
· Risk assessments – done at the design and implementation process – to periodically assess risks and put strategies to address risk factors that are identified initially as well as those that arise when the project is being implemented.