Case Study: Livelihoods and Child Protection

A. Background Information provided in the case study

1. Affected population: total of 40,000 of Papua Koala residents
· Existing population – 30,000 (men, women, boys, girls)
· Returnees – 10,000 (men, women, boys, girls)
· Adolescents and Youth (A&Y) = approximately 50% of 40,000 PK residents
· 1/3 A&Y out of school, working sporadically.

2. Cultural Profile
· Highly gender stratified society
· Limited formal employment for men; women are forced to work in the informal sector
· Adolescents are economically active
· Girls become domestic servants for better off families

3. Challenges
· Wage jobs are scarce, especially for returnees
· Skills are limited
· Economy is weak
· Many workers are idle
· Women and girls fear of GBV
· Teen pregnancy is high
· Little success in attracting girls to programs
· Low school attendance, especially for girls
· Youth gangs are prevalent; negative image of young people
· Returnees only eat 1-2 meals a day

4. Resources/Opportunities
· PK is a seaside town
· Rich in timber and mineral resources
· Farm land is plentiful
· Home based piecework
· Deteriorating infrastructure will need to be improved

B. Questions:
- What steps will you take to ensure better outcomes for the children in the community?
- What specific approaches will you take to address the needs of various groups?
- What actors will you work to ensure success?
- How will you prove that your projects are working?

C. Conclusions derived from the information above:

· Generally when a weak economy hits a particular area, the problem becomes a community problem; both returnees and existing residents are negatively affected by the civil war; they both struggle to find jobs and make their living. Although returnees suffer more than the existing residents, we cannot solely provide assistance only to returnees group. Doing so will only increase the discrimination and the violence against returnees group.
· Likewise, we have to be sensitive in providing livelihood assistance to Youth & Adolescents group as well as the other age groups. If jobs is already scarce, providing skill training only for Youth and Adolescents will greatly decrease the ability of older age group to get jobs; therefore increasing the risk of discrimination against Youth and Adolescents age group. What we can do is to provide skills training programs for the different age groups within the community and match the skills with the jobs that are age appropriate.

D. Our Approach
I. Categorize challenges/issues.
Based on the information given, there are 4 major issues, which may be inter-related:
A. Violence: Discrimination and violence against the returnees, GBV violence, and Youth gangs violence
B. Unmatched skills to available opportunities and resources: existing residents and returnees
C. Continuing education for adolescents and youth, and girls are disrupted
D. Not enough meals in a day

II. Conduct Assessment for
A. Conduct livelihood NEED assessment for the returnees as well as existing residents to determine the type of assistance. The program resulted from this analysis might be a short term program to help alleviate primary needs: food, shelter, and clothing.
B. Conduct gap analysis for the available resources/opportunities to the skill set of different age groups. Make sure we pay attention to the job requirement to make sure it is age appropriate. The programs resulted from this gap analysis are medium-long term programs, which prepare and equip individuals. If the skill set matches the opportunities, these individuals will make economic contributions not only for their own households, but also for the community as a whole and the result may be a better economic condition for the area.
C. Conduct market analysis to make sure that there is a market/need for the type of products and services.

III. Verify and validate results of analysis to make sure that we come up with program recommendations which are sustainable and fit the needs of the community. Take into account cultural limitations and attitudes toward recommended programs.

IV. Recommended Livelihood Programs

PART A. Livelihood program to address the basic education, life skills, and employment readiness.

Before we start the education program, we will raise community awareness about the important of education for both girls and boys. The purpose of raising community awareness is to create long term social structures in which girls can fully participate in the education program.
Education program will be divided into 2 categories:
1. Formal Education – children who are not economically active and are currently in school will continue to receive formal education. Accelerated program will be offered for Youth and Adolescents. Practical skills training can be offered to equip these just in case they are be in the economically active group.

2. Non-formal education. Economically active children (who can’t attend the formal class) will receive informal education about practical/business skills, life skills (self concept, self esteem, decision making, negotiation, communicational, critical thinking skills) and employment readiness (vocational and skills training. Note that the training subject will depend on need and market assessment).
Additional considerations for educational programs:
· Education is free of cost
· Adolescent and youth will actively engage in all phase of program design: assessment, implementation, evaluation and monitoring, identification of specific interest and concern (they will be accompanied by facilitators or mentors, to synchronize their interests, capabilities, with the opportunities).
· The schedules will be flexible considering many children are economically active
· Because of the high teen pregnancy, the program needs provide child care so that teen girls can still receive education. The girls also need to learn about pregnancy and the family system.
· Safe school environment is a must, including journey to and from facilities. Work with mentors, teachers, communities to enforce guidelines against GBV.
· Program can provide lunches to help with the children nutrition, as well as support for clothing, , sanitary supplies and separate bathrooms in education facilities.
· Program may introduce big brother/big sister to foster positive role models among the children/youth/adolescents and to create a sense of belonging as well as responsibilities.
· Provide training on reproductive health for young girls, older women, midwives, indigenous medical practitioners

PART B. Livelihood program to address Violence (Discrimination against Returnees, GBV, Youth Gangs)

1. Preliminary assessment
- Conduct assessment on the living environment, is it habitable? (based on the safety and sanitation). Is the community/public facility is accessible for the returnees?
- Conduct assessment on the community’s acceptance or concerns of the returnees? Is it an ethnicity issue or religious issue, or is it based on the concerns that returnees will take away jobs that are already scarce?
- Conduct assessment on the women group, what types of program they need to contribute to family’s economy? How to ensure their living and working environments are safe?
- Conduct assessment on youth and children. What types of programs they need to keep them out of trouble? If they need to work, what kind of jobs and environment are suitable for them?

2. Intervention program
- Work with local community leaders, government officials, religious leader, traditional leadesr, and teachers about gender and discrimination so that they have better understanding and hopefully will help prevent GBV in community
- Ensure “child friendly school”. Work with teachers, school’s official and staff to prevent bullying against returnee’s children. Create awareness against abuse and corporal punishment from the teachers
- Make education programs and economic programs accessible for existing residents as well as returnees to prevent additional discrimination. Create programs based on Need assessments.
3. Actors who are involved to ensure success:
- local government officials (social affairs agency, women empowerment and child protection agency, education agency, local health agency, family planning agency)
- local child protection authority (i.e in Indonesia: Local Child Protection Commission)
- community leaders (informal leader, religious leader, traditional leader)
- children group
- midwives, indigenous medical practitioners

PART C. Livelihood program to address weak economy in the area.
In order to create sustainable livelihood programs, we have to look into the economy of the area. Part of the reason that job is scarce and violence rate is high is not only because the skills are limited, but also because the economy is weak. We need to create or provide stimulus that can promote economic growth and job opportunities in parallel with education programs in PART A, as well as the activities that addresses violence in PART B. All three parts of the programs (A,B,C) are inter-related.

2 types of economic programs: macro and micro.

1. Macro.
On the macro level, we can work with the government to create job opportunities that are age appropriate for PK residents.
For example:
· Infrastructure is deteriorated. Deteriorating infrastructure can present an opportunity for job creation. Hard labor working is not appropriate for children or even for youth/adolescents. We can carve infrastructure jobs to adults. It is important that we create job opportunities for adults so that we can bring back the role of the male adults as the breadwinner.
· Mining and mineral resources. Again, the type of jobs from mining and mineral resources may not be age appropriate for children/youth. But it provides opportunities for adults.
· Generally the creation of a specific sector/industry will open up many other services that support that sector. Trainings and skills related to these sectors must be provided and tied into the practical training in PART A. Women, youth and adolescents may participate in the services jobs whenever it is appropriate.
· Farmland: we can work with government so that any excess farmlands can be utilized by a group of people. Government or NGOs can provide seed money or provide the seed, tools, and fertilizers to equip those who have the skills or who are willing to work in this field. Farmland is a very important asset. If managed well, the area can produce food for its own residents. In the future, PK may even export their produce to other areas surrounding it.
· PK is a seaside town: means that there are opportunities in fisheries or even in producing sea related products other than transporting sand.

2. Micro.
On the micro level, we can create programs based on Need assessment.
· Food (and shelter) support
If a fraction of the population cannot afford to have appropriate meals, food programs such as food kitchen, food stamps (or subsidies) can be provided for a period of time. The program may include existing residents as well as returnees. If necessary, temporary shelters can also be provided, considering the high level of violence and discrimination in the area.
· Micro loans for home-based piecework. It looks like small-scale of home based businesses have already been established informally. If the result of market research analysis validates the demand for products from these home based businesses, then micro loan can be created. We recommend that micro loans not to be given to individual, instead, it is given to a group of people to lower the risk of the funds being misused.
· Conditional cash transfer. Unless it is absolutely necessary, we do not recommend cash transfer. It is hard to monitor, it creates dependency, and it also creates inequalities.

Actors involved:
· Local government, community leaders, business leaders
· Social departments
· NGOs to help with skill and knowledge training, as well as subsidy (if necessary)

For all PART A,B,C, to make sure that the programs are working, we have to do periodic monitoring and evaluation, one of the method known as PLAN.DO.CHECK.ACTION. With periodic monitoring and evaluation, we can make adjustments or even replace a program with another according the progress of the area and the residents.