Indonesia Group 10. - Case study 3.

Run a livelihood assistance programs for the returnees.

Potentials of the current situation:

· Farm land is plentiful.
· The district is rich in timber and mineral resources.
· Some families have home-based piecework.

Constraints of the current situation:

· Only a few returnees have the requisite skills for farming.
· The returnees are subject to discrimination and violence.
· Highly gender stratified society.
· Fear of crime.
· Street children.
· Child workers.
· Teen pregnancy.
· Gangs.
· High level of school drop out.

Subjects targeted for the programs:

The returnees:
· Men
· Women
· Children (girls and boys)

The programs:

First: Discrimination and Gender Based Violence
The most important thing to start with is to create programs that can eliminate the most urgent constraint situations and conditions that are related to the human rights violations. So the program related to the elimination of discrimination and gender based violence must be the first program to do.

The programs consist of several activities:

1. Campaign and educating society about human rights.
2. Push the government to protect their people’s human rights
3. Strengthening health and mental health services
4. Awareness campaigns about discrimination and Gender Based Violence
5. Campaigns to avoid impunity of the perpetrators of Gender Based Violence

Second: Parents
After the developing the program on the elimination of discrimination and gender-based violence, we should focus on strengthening the economic situation of the families. By strengthening the economic family situation we can influence the protection of a child. As we strengthen the economical situation by, for example, diversifying the income streams of a family and making both parents breadwinners, the child labor will not be necessary anymore. If the children don’t have to work anymore, they will have more time to attend school and develop several skills (life skills, vocational skill etc), which they will be able to use in the future. The school will also be a place were awareness of various problems can be created. So, in order to improve the livelihood of the families, we should start with a focus on the parents.
The second program is related to strengthening the family’s economic condition. This program focuses on parents as the breadwinners to help them increase their capacity to earning money for their family. First we should make an inventory and analyze the needs of the family, the skills of the parents, the current market situation (define the demand and supply side), and create job opportunities for the parents that match the current market situation. Based on this knowledge, we should define several programs, with different target groups:

A. Program for men consist of two programs (because there are not enough job opportunities for everyone to become a farmer or a miner). The men can choose between:

1) Become a Farmer
· Skills training program on farming, and give the famers seeds and fertilizers.
· Repair or create irrigation systems.
· Give technical assistance to help them do farming activities (teach them the necessary skills)
· Provide the men with funding (microcredit loans) in order to enable them to start their own farming business
· Create an open market place to help them sell their farm products

2) Become a miner
· Skills training program to become a miner (also teach them about safety)
· Create an infrastructure to the mining timber and mineral resources
· Give technical assistance to help them do mining activities
· Create an open market place to sell their mine products

B. Program for women

· Skills training to do home industry like home-based piecework. The home-based piecework could be the cultural characteristics of Papua Kuala (such as hand made products like bags, clothes etc). So women can both work at home and take care of their children. When the women will bear the caretaker role, it means that the older children don’t have the responsibility of caretaking of their siblings, and they will have the time to go to school.
· Give the women material that they can use for their products. Also allocate financial funds if necessary to increase the quality of the products they produce (microcredit loans)
· Create an open market place for those products, such as marketing via Internet.

Third: Children
The goal of the third program is focused on the children (both boys and girls). Currently, there are several problems with the children in the community. There is a lot of child labor, low school enrollment, high teenage pregnancy’s, youth delinquency, gangs and street children. To reduce these problems related to youth, we should focus on increasing the enrollment rate of children in school, because the school will give us a platform to reach various goals.

In order to increase school enrollment, the most important thing will be to communicate with the children themselves. Give them space to form an opinion, give them the feeling they are heard and their opinions are respected. We should take the aspirations of the children into account and identify the skills that can make a young person successful. We should build rapport with the children and involve them in developing strategies and interventions.

By increasing the enrollment of the children in the schooling system, several goals could be reached:

1. Literacy and numeracy classes will improve the capacities and possibilities of the child in the society.
2. At the school, we can create skills training, life skills training and vocational training for the youth. So they will develop certain skills that can produce sellable goods (such as sewing, mechanical workshop, cooking).
3. In the light of sustainability: The children should be educated in entrepreneurship. For example: how to gain money from their skills, how to manage that money for their own future (like how to saving money in the bank, etc). The goals of these skills training will be for the children to learn how to be a good entrepreneur.
4. At the school, we should also focus on awareness campaigns. For example, awareness of Gender Based Violence, of the equality of boys and girls. We can also provide the children with sexual education in order to prevent further teenage pregnancies.
5. By going to school and offering the children an alternative life style, we could reduce (and hopefully minimize) the number of street children, gangs and juvenile delinquency.
6. By going to school the children will have the feeling they have a purpose in life and will feel valuable. It also enhances the self-esteem of the children.

Several ways to increase school enrollment:

1. Base the curriculum in the needs of children and society, make sure it consists of an attractive program
2. Give funding to the schools to increase the school facilities (books, learning material, attract good teachers)
3. Promote the importance of school and education through key figures such as community leaders, religious leaders, local and national government and public awareness campaigns
4. Provide the families with cash incentives on the condition that their children attend school
5. Build rapport with the children. And train teachters to be good teachers with various educational programmes, which are suitable for the ages of the children. It will be important for the actors (teachers etc.) to have knowledge about the developmental level of the children and approach them in an age appropriate way when interacting with the children (For example a friendly approach, give them the feeling of being trusted and respected).
6. Make the schools free of charge (provide the schools with funding).

Besides increasing school enrollment, we should also create after school activities (at night) according the interest of the juveniles. These activities should be free of charge and can offer the juveniles an alternative to delinquency and other deviant behavior. Examples of these activities: Sports (basketball, self defense, Football, etc), Dance clubs, Singing clubs, Religion clubs etc.

In the current situation, a lot of the children have jobs and work. In our opinion, the most important thing is that the work the children do, to contribute to the financial situation of their family, is not harmful or hazardous in any way. If the work is not harmful or hazardous, the child voluntarily decided to work, in a ‘good’ environment, age appropriate and not interfering with the education and development of the child, the child could keep working in combination with its education. Also, the children should still have the chance, and time, to play with their peers.
- Is not harmful or hazardous in any way (for the child)
- Is age appropriate
- Is done on a voluntary basis (by the child)
- Is done in a ‘good’ environment (no exploitation, no power abuse by boss, clean environment etc)
- Not interfering with the education or development (of the child)
- Is possible in combination with education

Collaboration with different actors

To run these programs, and make them successful, we should cooperate with several actors. For example:

- Local and national government
- Schools
- Academician
- Medical staff (hospitals)
- Worker unions
- Experts in mining, farming, economics and education
- Other child protection agencies
- Other NGO’s with economic programs

Evaluation of the interventions and programs

To evaluate these programs, we will use several indicators:

- The improvement of child protection
- The rate of school attendance
- The rate of family income
- Nutritional status
- Access to healthcare
- Is the discrimination in the community reduced?
- Is the rate of GBV cases reduced?
- Is the rate of teen pregnancy reduced?
- Is the rate of street children reduced?
- Is the rate of children labor reduced?
- Is the rate of juvenile delinquency reduced?

In all these proposed programs we should try to ensure sustainability by doing a market research in order to match the skills of the men/women and children with the demands on the market and job opportunities. Also, we should try to get funding for a longer period of time in order to ensure sustainability in schooling for the children. Another way to create sustainability will be to increase the awareness among the parents of the importance of schooling for their children. We should make sure both the parents and the children are highly motivitated to participate in the educational system.